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06/06/2024

Technical knowledge of spindle bearing

As a key component of the machine tool, the performance of the spindle will directly affect the rotation accuracy, speed, rigidity, temperature rise, noise and other parameters of the machine tool, and then affect the machining quality of the workpiece, such as the dimensional accuracy, surface roughness and other indicators of the parts. Therefore, in order to maintain excellent machine tool processing capacity, high-performance bearings must be used. The bearing accuracy used on the spindle of the machine tool shall be isop5 or above (P5 or P4 is the accuracy grade of ISO, usually P0, P6, P5, P4 and P2 from low to high). For the spindle support of high-speed and high-precision machine tools such as CNC machine tools and machining centers, the accuracy of isop4 or above shall be selected; Spindle bearings include angular contact ball bearings, tapered roller bearings, and cylindrical roller bearings. Precision angular contact ball bearing Among the above bearings, precision angular contact ball bearings are the most widely used. We all know that the rolling element of angular contact ball bearing is a ball; Because it is a kind of point contact (different from the line contact of roller bearing), it can provide higher speed, less heat and higher rotation accuracy. In some ultra-high speed spindle applications, hybrid bearings with ceramic balls (generally Si3N4 or Al2O3) will also be used. Compared with the traditional fully quenched steel ball, the characteristics of ceramic ball material endow ceramic ball bearing with the characteristics of high stiffness, high speed, high temperature resistance and long service life, so as to meet the needs of high-end customers for machine tool bearing products. As far as the contact angle of angular contact ball bearing is concerned, at present, the more popular contact angles are 15 ° and 25 °; Generally, the contact angle of 15 ° has relatively high speed performance, while the contact angle of 25 ° has high axial bearing capacity. Because the choice of preload has a great impact on the application of precision angular contact ball bearings, for example, medium or heavy bearing preload is generally selected in the occasion of high load and high rigidity; For some high-speed and high-precision applications, we need to pay attention to the selection of appropriate preload in the early selection of bearings. Generally, light preload is common. Preload is generally divided into light, medium and heavy; In order to facilitate the use of customers, at present, several major bearing manufacturers in the world generally provide bearings with pre grinding bearing end faces and preloading, that is, what we usually call universal paired precision angular contact ball bearings. This type of bearing eliminates the preload adjustment of customers, thus saving installation time. Precision tapered roller bearing In some machine tool applications with heavy load and certain requirements for speed, such as raw grinding of forgings, threading machine of oil pipeline, heavy lathe and milling machine, selecting precision tapered roller bearing is an ideal scheme. Because the roller of tapered roller bearing is designed in line contact, it can provide high rigidity and load for the main shaft; In addition, tapered roller bearing is a pure rolling bearing design, which can well reduce the running torque and heating of the bearing, so as to ensure the speed and accuracy of the main shaft. Because tapered roller bearings can adjust axial preload (clearance) during installation, this allows customers to better adjust the bearing clearance during the entire service life of the bearing.
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Technical knowledge of spindle bearing
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